Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 60 Page 61 Page 62 Page 63 Page 64 Page 65 Page 66 Page 67 Page 68 Page 69 Page 70 Page 71 Page 72 Page 73 Page 74 Page 75 Page 76 Page 77 Page 78 Page 79 Page 80 Page 81 Page 82 Page 83 Page 84 Page 85 Page 86 Page 87 Page 88 Page 89 Page 90 Page 91 Page 92 Page 93 Page 94 Page 95 Page 96 Page 97 Page 98 Page 99 Page 100 Page 101 Page 102 Page 103 Page 104 Page 105 Page 106 Page 107 Page 108 Page 109 Page 110 Page 111 Page 112 Page 113 Page 114 Page 115 Page 116 Page 117 Page 118 Page 119 Page 120 Page 121 Page 122 Page 123 Page 124 Page 125 Page 126 Page 127 Page 128 Page 129 Page 130 Page 131 Page 132 Page 133 Page 134 Page 135 Page 136 Page 137 Page 138 Page 139 Page 140 Page 141 Page 142 Page 143 Page 144 Page 145 Page 146 Page 147 Page 148 Page 149 Page 150 Page 151 Page 152 Page 153 Page 154 Page 155 Page 156 Page 157 Page 158 Page 159 Page 160 Page 161 Page 162 Page 163 Page 164 Page 165 Page 166 Page 167 Page 168 Page 169 Page 170 Page 171GeoDesign: new criteria for urban planning GeoDesign (explained in the Building Information Modelling section) is a new transdisciplinary urban planning and design domain launched in California in 2009. Steven Ervin of Harvard University’s Graduate School of Design, (where key principles underpinning GeoDesign were developed) has used these criteria to define the movement: — —Geospatial — —Environmental — —Object–Oriented — —Data–Driven — —Educational — —Scientific — —Interactive — —Global — —Networked Cities and climate change: integrating responses Cities around the world, often working with key universities, are taking ambitious steps to coordinate new approaches to mitigating and adapting to climate change. Among many measures being conceived and piloted are schemes to transform urban energy systems, reduce transport emissions, retrofit buildings with more energy–efficient power systems, conserve water, build resilience to flooding and prepare for heat waves and deal with heat island effects. These individual policies need to be implemented as part of an integrated strategy that can steer cities towards low carbon and well–adapted futures. To do so requires understanding the processes that are driving long term changes in cities—and how they interact. As well as climate change, it is important to recognise demographic, economic, land use, technological and behavourial changes as drivers of that will shape the futures of cities. In Britain, the University of Newcastle’s Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research has developed an Urban Integrated Assessment Facility (UIAF) which simulates the main processes of long term change at the scale of whole cities— using London as its primary example. The UIAF couples a series of simulation modules within a scenario and policy analysis framework. It is driven by global and national (UK) scenarios of climate and socio–economic change, which feed into models of regional economy and land use change. Simulations of climate, land use and socio–economic change inform analysis of carbon dioxide emissions (focusing on energy, personal transport and freight transport) and the impacts of climate change (focusing on heat waves, drought and floods). The final component of the UIAF is the integrated assessment tool that provides the interface between the Simulation of underground pipes below towers in Sydney’s central business district, from the Sydney Down Under modelling project by the NSW Government’s emergency and land management specialists, with technical experts from the City of Sydney. (NSW Government) 73 home RESEARCH THEMES CITY INFO MODELLING