Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 60 Page 61 Page 62 Page 63 Page 64 Page 65 Page 66 Page 67 Page 68 Page 69 Page 70 Page 71 Page 72 Page 73 Page 74 Page 75 Page 76 Page 77 Page 78 Page 79 Page 80 Page 81 Page 82 Page 83 Page 84 Page 85 Page 86 Page 87 Page 88 Page 89 Page 90 Page 91 Page 92 Page 93 Page 94 Page 95 Page 96 Page 97 Page 98 Page 99 Page 100 Page 101 Page 102 Page 103 Page 104 Page 105 Page 106 Page 107 Page 108 Page 109 Page 110 Page 111 Page 112 Page 113 Page 114 Page 115 Page 116 Page 117 Page 118 Page 119 Page 120 Page 121 Page 122 Page 123 Page 124 Page 125 Page 126 Page 127 Page 128 Page 129 Page 130 Page 131 Page 132 Page 133 Page 134 Page 135 Page 136 Page 137 Page 138 Page 139 Page 140 Page 141 Page 142 Page 143 Page 144 Page 145 Page 146 Page 147 Page 148 Page 149 Page 150 Page 151 Page 152 Page 153 Page 154 Page 155 Page 156 Page 157 Page 158 Page 159 Page 160 Page 161 Page 162 Page 163 Page 164 Page 165 Page 166 Page 167 Page 168 Page 169 Page 170 Page 171What is this Technology Mechanism? GraduallybeingformedbytheUnitedNationsFramework ConventiononClimateChange(UNFCCC)inBonn, itsmaincomponentisaglobal‘technologynetwork’of Earthandspacesciencesexperts,tobeadministeredby anewClimateTechnologyCentrebasedinEurope.The UNFCCC’sSubsidiaryBodyofScienceandTechnology Advisersrecentlyclarifiedthatthenetworkwouldfocus on‘research’and‘systematicEarthobservation’. This network has potential to become a global public– private partnership to support the world’s research communities across a wide range of disciplines—from rocket science to oceanography to video gaming. Morethan80globalorganisationsalreadyarecontributing totheultimategoalofcreatingalocation–distributed computersimulationoftheplanet’scomplexbehaviours. Several nodes of the simulation system already exist and more are planned. The first example (and still the most powerful), launched in 2002. It is the Earth Simulator supercomputer array near Yokohama, run by the Japan Agency for Marine–Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC). InFebruary2011,theChineseAcademyofSciences launchedanewheadquartersforitsCenterforEarth ObservationandDigitalEarth(CEODE),whichalso hoststheIntegratedResearchonDisasterRisk(IRDR) Programme. IRDR is a decade–long project co–sponsoredbytheInternationalCouncilforScience (ICSU),theInternationalSocialScienceCouncil(ISSC), andtheUnitedNationsInternationalStrategyforDisaster Reduction(UNISDR).TwootherEarthsimulatorcentres areinearlystagesofplanningforEurope. Isn’t Google Earth (commercially launched 2005) simulatingtheplanetalready?Yes,butitisaUnitedStates– headquartered (and China–exiled) commercial system withstrongcompetitorsandkeycapabilitylimitations(for example,zoomingwithoutgroundareascalereferences). Google Earth (and Maps) have ignited a massive new long term movement to evolve much more sophisticated andvisualinformation–richsystemsforEarthobservation. Right down to the scale of a single house or balcony. This movement (currently termed Digital Earth) already is being compared in significance to 20th century modernism—and the vast cultural and economic ramifications have only just begun to be detected. Participants in the movement (broader than the UN technology network but generally supporting its goals) already are co–operating to apply Star Trek, Star Wars, SimCity and Avatar–style ‘spatial information’ technologies to help deliver a raft of new benefits for future ‘spatially enabled societies’. Critics of the Copenhagen Accord (supported by more than 120 countries in December 2009) surprisingly failed to notice Clause 11, which promised a ‘Technology Mechanism to accelerate technology development and transfer in support of action on adaptation and mitigation’of climate change. Left: NASA (US) GPS satellite (NASA). Right: European Space Agency (ESA) artist impression of the System Test Bed satellite GSTB–V2/B, part of the Galileo constellation. (ESA and P. Carril) 6 home