Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 60 Page 61 Page 62 Page 63 Page 64 Page 65 Page 66 Page 67 Page 68 Page 69 Page 70 Page 71 Page 72 Page 73 Page 74 Page 75 Page 76 Page 77 Page 78 Page 79 Page 80 Page 81 Page 82 Page 83 Page 84 Page 85 Page 86 Page 87 Page 88 Page 89 Page 90 Page 91 Page 92 Page 93 Page 94 Page 95 Page 96 Page 97 Page 98 Page 99 Page 100 Page 101 Page 102 Page 103 Page 104 Page 105 Page 106 Page 107 Page 108 Page 109 Page 110 Page 111 Page 112 Page 113 Page 114 Page 115 Page 116 Page 117 Page 118 Page 119 Page 120 Page 121 Page 122 Page 123 Page 124 Page 125 Page 126 Page 127 Page 128 Page 129 Page 130 Page 131 Page 132 Page 133 Page 134 Page 135 Page 136 Page 137 Page 138 Page 139 Page 140 Page 141 Page 142 Page 143 Page 144 Page 145 Page 146 Page 147 Page 148 Page 149 Page 150 Page 151 Page 152 Page 153 Page 154 Page 155 Page 156 Page 157 Page 158 Page 159 Page 160 Page 161 Page 162 Page 163 Page 164 Page 165 Page 166 Page 167 Page 168 Page 169 Page 170 Page 171Launched in 2005 (after Google Maps), GE is transforming the practices, potentials and effectiveness of the ancient skill of mapping. Mapstodayarebecoming‘virtual’models.Theyare intransitionfrom2D(flatimagesonpaperorscreen) through2.5D(flatmapscolouredtoindicateundulating terrain)andonto3Dmodels,4Dsimulations(running overtime)andincreasinglynD(infinitedimensions, obtainedbyaddingmultiplelayersofvisualinformation). For built environment professionals educated in the history of 20th century ‘town and country planning’, the implications of Google Earth are both exciting and frightening. New software programs are making obsolete large parts of last century’s thinking about ‘appropriate’ planning methods and guidelines and traditional practices of manually ‘writing’ or ‘drawing’ plans. Compare, for example, MIT Professor Carlo Ratti’s 2006 maps of ‘Real Time Rome’ (dynamic renderings of people movements using mobile phone data) with Ebenezer Howard’s legendary 1898 diagram for planners of new ‘garden cities’. Most government and professional planning offices now are evolving from paper, PDF and slideshow documents (comprising mainly text, line diagrams, site photographs and artistic visualisations) to increasingly online group discussions around maps enhanced with visualised datasets, showing different characteristics and conditions of areas being assessed. These discussions are not always accurately described as ‘meetings’ in terms of attendees’ physical proximity—participants may be gathered around one map or reading it on different screens located in different buildings or cities. Among early examples of online environmental models were the Virtual Los Angeles project by UCLA’s Urban Simulation Team and the Virtual London model (including dynamic pollution and flooding predictions) by University College London’s Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. Today’s mapping and 3D simulation systems are significantly easier and more instant than old manual systems of adding new information to maps by drawing on overlays of tracing paper. GoogleEarthandsimilarweb–enabledgovernmentand commercialcomputermodels(suchasNASAWorldWind, Microsoft Bing, Digital Globe, Esri ArcGeoExplorer and NearMaps) now are commonly used and communicated as a basic tool in almost all projects that need to explain current or proposed land uses. Other important new tools and services for planning cities include flythrough models of virtual city environments (for example Urban Circus in Brisbane, Gehry Technologies’ Digital Project and various kinds of computer–aided design and building simulation software packages from Autodesk, Bentley and other manufacturers). A new modelling system especially designed for fast renderings of built environment planning strategies is CityEngine, originally developed by FutureCity Above: Nextspace modelling of above and underground conditions, seen on an Apple iPad. (Nextspace for South East Water, Australia) Below top: Ebenezer Howard’s 1898 ‘garden cities’ diagram. Below bottom: Real Time Rome map of mobile phone calls peaking during a 2006 Madonna concert. (MIT SENSEable City Lab) 147 home